Punishment elicits a fear of the punishing person. It can induce stress, arousing the nervous system into an overwhelming emotional reaction. Its by-products include anxiety, panic, anger, and resentment. Punishment provokes retaliation, fight or flight, avoidance or escape. It creates hostile or docile individuals.
It may not produce the desired effect: elimination or reduction in the rate of a target behavior. For example, B.F. Skinner's first punishing apparatus was a mechanical arm that hit the paws of rats who were pressing levers for food reinforcement. This mild punishment temporarily suppressed the rate of lever-pressing, but it did not reduce the overall number of lever-presses over the long run while lever presses continued after Skinner withdrew the punishment procedure. (Skinner, 1991/1938, p. 154).
For more about punishment see Skinner (1974, p. 68-71; 2003, p. 96-102; and 2014, chap. 10-12.)
Skinner, B. F. (2003). The technology of teaching (Original work published 1968). Cambridge, MA: B.F. Skinner Foundation.
Canton, Massachusetts: Anna Kosovskaya escapes the Judge Rotenberg electroshock "treatment/torture" Center (JRC)