What follows below is a reprint and expansion of my comment to a post in the bedbugger.com forums about exterior non-sticky surfaces of tape preventing the vertical motion of foraging bedbugs.
If you don't know much about behaviorism, you can still read this post for its bedbug opinions. I would be happy to know you invested some extra time to read about the science of human behavior. But if you're just visiting the site to read this article, I hope you enjoy the story and its behavioral slant. You don't need to know anything about behaviorism to read through the page.
The first time I caught them a few years ago, I had seen a bedbug insecticide spray in my friend's bedroom. I asked, "Do you have bedbugs?"
He said, "Yes I do," and then I took a nap in his bed.
I didn't own a TV so I wasn't aware of the news coverage on the fresh epidemic. Since I grew up without the blood sucker, I always thought "bedbug" was another name for a dust mite, the bug in the bed that's almost too small the see, that eats shed human skin and makes us allergic. So I slept in his bed. I took some home to my own bedroom. Then I slept in the living room and brought them down there. I ran away to my mother's house and we found them in the guest bedrooms upstairs. Then my brother and his family had them. Then we all got rid of them with the help of some licensed pest control operators.
I don't know how, but this winter I got them again. There's been no sign of them in six weeks. I've done some research to relieve my anxiety, so I want to share my findings with visitors to this web log. Hopefully, after reading this article, you can get a good start on some of your own research and learn how to prevent them from entering your home in the first place or how to manage your situation if you do get them.
You can take advantage of my sources, links, and opinions, but don't take my word for granted. Denise Donovan, the leader of the International Bed Bug Resource Authority (IBBRA), told me to look for products and strategies that have been tested by entomologists with live bedbugs. She also said the resurgent threat is so fresh that much of the industry still engages in trial and error approaches to eradicate them from the premises.
As in all nonfiction, any bit of information offered as a "true fact" can somehow be erroneous. Premises held to be true at the beginning of an argument can be false. Illogical arguments based on true premises will invalidate any conclusions that follow. Intended or unintended omissions can render an argument incomplete and ineffectual. Unknown and unreported confounding variables can skew experimental results. Secondary or tertiary sources can misrepresent the findings of the primary sources they rely on to make their assertions. Capital letters after somebody's name may not represent any real legitimate credentials.
As an example of the continued promulgation of apparently bad advice once thought to be good, on December 8, 2013, the Entomological Society of America (bug scientists) reported, "To achieve 100% mortality, a minimum exposure time of 80 hours at minus 16° C is required for all life stages," but the American Camp Association for "kids and families" hasn't yet corrected their bedbug page. They say, "Bedbugs are also vulnerable to temperatures below 32° F (0° C), but you'd need to leave the items outdoors or in the freezer for a recommended five days" (Retrieved from acacamps.org March 4, 2014).
This article focuses more on my current dilemma, how to keep them out and to nip the problem quick in the bud if they ever penetrate these walls again. If you do have them, the internet has plenty of advice on do's and don't's including how to treat the bed. BedBugSupply.com sells products that supplement their "four-step solution," including vacuums and steamers supposedly designed for bedbug safety. Make sure to coordinate their steps with an exterminator's before doing anything.
Bedbugs require work and expense. My landlord pays to exterminate this building, but tenants need to prepare for the exterminator. The sooner you act the better, but ill-informed panic makes things worse. Learn what do to before you've been struck.
This paper links to several retail products, books, and bedbug suppliers. Items can malfunction, or cause hazards, including fire. For example, some people use rubbing alcohol, but I object. See this link for some of its dangers, including fire. This link also talks about alcohol risks. There are other products for spraying and killing them on contact. Time Magazine warns, "Bug Bombs (and foggers) Vs. BedBugs: The Bugs Win. Products may not perform as well as claimed. There are many other bedbug specific products and strategies not included here. Reviews vary from harmful, useless, or beneficial.
Denise Donovan also wrote eleven books that are available at Amazon.com, including one she said was translated into a Spanish dialect that speakers of all Spanish dialects can use. She answers a free support hotline. We had spoken at length and she put some of my worries to rest.
There are many methods and products for travelers to keep them from bringing them home. Here's a video of David Cain, a pest control operator, inspecting a hotel bed. I don't cover travel because I cannot speak from experience. All I know is that an attorney friend of my brother's and my financial adviser both encountered bedbugs in their travels. Kaylor (2011, p.4) says, "The prevalence of infestations...in hotels...seems to be on the rise." In 2007 the Orkin pest management company reported many cases "noted by travelers in 'upscale hotels'" (Kaylor, p. 6). The National Pest Management Association (2010) said that 67% of approximately 1000 U.S and international pest management companies surveyed reported treating bedbug infestations in hotels/motels (Kayler, p. 7, 8, and 25).
I do not receive any form of compensation with this blog or my Twitter account. My written work has never been monetized. However, papers such as this one do expand my list of followers.
There is a little non-graphic mention of sexuality below, human and bedbug, and there is talk about the bugs feeding on blood. Some may not want to read any further.
The "Bed Bug Barrier Slippers" featured below have flaws. Bedbugger.com reports "double-sided tape does not often catch bed bugs." Glue collects dust which eventually diminishes its outer strength down to zero. The fix is temporary, if a fix at all, since new applications are needed. I use Gorilla tape. It's not easy to fold it into double-sided stickiness. The strips have non-sticky openings at the ends. The layers have gaps so I overlay more than one. Can a bug get through? I did not test them with live bugs. The Appendix at the bottom of this post addresses the potential of a trapped bug alerting the others to run away.
Due to my lifestyle, research, and writing, I call myself a behaviorist, but I am not a licensed psychologist or a Board Certified Behavior Analyst. I am certified in New Jersey as a Teacher of the Handicapped. I graduated from Georgetown University. I am not an expert in bedbugs, logic, ethics, or behaviorism. Although I have training and experience in a few behavioral applications, I did not perform any functionally analytic collections of data on the environmental antecedents and consequences in effect while students emitted problem behaviors. I am a consumer of mental health services who accepts behavioral interventions done to me as long as I can consent and help design the program.
Someone in this thread in the bedbugger.com forums asked that if plastic tape can keep bedbugs from crawling up furniture legs, then what keeps them from climbing up your own legs when you're sitting down?
Before reading the comment, I had already addressed the problem by making bedbug barrier slippers. I layered one-sided and one-sided tape over all four sides of the platform. Here is the link to the pictures with notes attached. I hope others can improve it. Perhaps they already exist. Hopefully they will protect me when sitting at the desk and chair, which are guarded by ClimbUp Insect Interceptors.
I know they look crazy, but I take medication for my delusions. Besides, I'm not the crazy one. Only the rest of the world is crazy. Compared to the planet, I'm perfectly normal.
Now that the unwelcome guests have disappeared, if somehow in the future one of them grabs hold of an item I'm carrying or wearing outside, I want to kill it or isolate it as soon as it enters the home. It could be pregnant. They can lay hundreds of eggs in a lifetime. As soon as I step inside, if I sat down anywhere outside, I'll gently remove my clothes while standing on top of a big white sheet. If I spot one, I can kill it with a contact spray or crush it with gloves on my hand. Then I'll set the clothes inside a heater or dryer to kill anything that's hiding. According to Denise, if I don't have time to heat up the clothes as soon as I get home, I can seal them in bags and treat them later, but not too much later. I'll check for air leaking from the bag. US Bed Bugs offers Ziploc Double Zip Bags. I don't want to seal any untreated clothes for more than a day or two. I believe it's better for longer term storage of untreated items, not to seal, so if there's a bug inside, it can crawl out across the residual chemicals while they're still potent.
Denise recommended the PackTite above the other bedbug specific heaters on the market because I seem to remember she said PackTite tests them with live bedbugs. PackTite recalled an older version of the unit after three consumers complained about overheating, melting, and singing of items. Also according to Denise, setting off too big of a bug bomb can ignite a fire through a pilot light or electrical switches.
Venders report they're out of stock of the PackTite Max nationwide due to a shortage of parts. Do My Own Pest Control can notify you when it's available. However, most advice I've read says, do not kill bedbugs without a licensed pest control management company.
You don't want bedbugs entering your home in repackaged products that someone returned from an infested home. Bedbugger.com says, "Bed Bug Supply takes returns only on new, unopened, and unused products. They take no returns at all on PackTite, ThermalStrike and NightWatch products.... US Bed Bugs does not take returns." Do My Own Pest Control accepts "unopened" returns,. However, unsatisfied customers can open products and return them disguised them as unopened. Bedbug eggs are sticky at first. Perhaps they can they stick to the outside of a unopened box.
Killing them with a dryer was recommended in a paper by Miller (undated) at the Virginia Tech Department of Entomology. The author discusses the "thermal death point" of the bugs and their eggs. You can buy a thermometer to set into the dryer to check its temperature.I don't have a dryer in this studio but maybe I'll get a compact one to supplement a PackTite, sinceit takes longer than a dryer.
If an intruder somehow breaks through the heat and ZipLoc-isolation layers of protection, as in falling off unnoticed while removing the clothes, I've installed ClimbUp Insect Interceptors on the legs of my bed to try to trap them when they move for the bed during sleep time. They can check into their Hotel California,but leaving is not so easy.
If these defenses don't work, I can invest in a bedbug-specific vacuum and steamer to be ready to start Bed Bug Supply's "four-step solution" immediately, as soon as I've consulted with an exterminator again.
What about visitors to the nest? Remember, your home is your castle. An elderly psychologist friend remembers childhood relatives from the 1930's whose home was infested. They came to visit his house. As soon as they arrived his mother had them remove all their clothes, she washed the clothes, and they took a hot bath. Recently my PhD psychologist wanted to come inside to use the restroom. I said okay and asked him not to sit down anywhere. People may believe they have no bedbugs, but they have them nonetheless. Others will not tell you when they know they have them on account of the stigma and social ramifications. Visitors can wait outside or you can meet them in a public place and take some precautions when you're out. For a "History of Bed Bug Management" see Potter (2011).
They say, "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." Now that Cimex lectularius has departed, I want to be sure I don't go out and pick up a common hitchhiker. So now, after reading this bedbugger.com thread, when I go outside, I'll attach clear tape to the walking shoes, with an un-sticky but smooth outer layer. Hopefully they won't crawl up my legs when I'm on my feet.
Nowadays I leave home and never sit down. I sold my car to the junk yard and just walk the blocks and stand up on the bus. I'm glad I don't have a car because they can harbor these critters too. Since you probably don't sleep much in your car, you might need an active bedbug monitor to know if you have them there. This is a product or a home made remedy that emits carbon dioxide to attract them into a trap they can't climb out of.
I'll get a new accessory that can spark up a conversation with people at the boardwalk, a lightweight collapsible stool taped on the legs. I have no problem telling people about my bedbugs. I told the people at the doctor's office and the bank I don't like sitting in public chairs because bedbugs can hitchhike onto them from clothes. They were sympathetic. I said I don't mind standing since it burns more calories than sitting.
I don't see why you can't get them sitting outside on a park bench in the middle of winter. "Bedbugs may be less susceptible to freezing temperatures than previously reported," according to a public release of the Entomological Society of America. "The authors found that in order to achieve 100% mortality, a minimum exposure time of 80 hours at minus 16 degrees Celsius is required for all life stages." Minus 16 degrees Celsius, the international standard, converts to 3.2 degrees Fahrenheit, the U.S.A. standard. "Homeowners can place bedbug-infested items in a freezer to destroy them. However, the authors recommend that the items be placed in plastic bags and that they remain in the freezer for 2-4 days, depending on the freezer's temperature." Even an entomologist can steer you wrong with incomplete or misleading language. How many people will measure their freezer's temperature in the middle of a crisis? They might read only the first sentence that says homeowners can place their items in the freezer without reading the next sentence that says, "depending on the...temperature." I put stamp albums in the freezer for a week during the recent episode. They were packed away in a box in the closet away from the chemicals. The freezer temperature fluctuated between 0 and 15 degrees Fahrenheit, usually above 5. It may not have worked.
There is no use for blame of anyone anywhere anytime. If you catch a cold, you usually don't know who gave it to you, and it does no good to blame the person who gave it to you, even if you could prove it, which you probably can't. You've still got the cold. You can teach them to turn their head, but so many people still believe you catch a cold from going out in the cold weather. You can't blame them for a false belief. Someone taught them a false belief. Likewise, you cannot accuse and blame people for giving you bedbugs. It's too hard to prove. They're notorious sneaks. Somebody gave it to the person who gave it to you, unless they got it from a bat or a bird, for instance. The crisis has grown from an epidemic to a pandemic. Who can you blame in a global crisis?
The bugs don't care if you're clean or dirty, rich or poor, or chocolate, vanilla, or caramel, although clutter makes things worse. As long as you're blooded, they want you. Denise Donovan advocates more communication and government action. People need to pull their heads from out of the sand, stand square in the face of fear, and abolish the silence.
(In a similar vein, I'm open about my mental illness. For about six years I spoke on a guest panel at Brookdale Community College's Human Sexuality class. Our topic was sex and disability. I explained how sexuality in someone with a serious mental illness is normal. When we break the ice to an unspoken topic, people share their own similar stories and feelings they avoid because of stigma, but who want to talk about them anyhow.)
Denise has many insights into the subject of ethical living in a rapidly accelerating international, panic inducing, bedbug pandemic. She says it's a good idea to tell the people in your building and your landlord. She told me a story of an employee who may have become infected at work and whose boss wouldn't talk about them, even other people told her she had them when she got up the nerve to tell them. It is possible that if you people conceal the fact you have bedbugs from people who ought to know, you can infect them, eliminate your infestation for the time being, and get them back from the people you infected. However, if you take a hot shower, then properly treat and seal your clothes and belongings before you go out, you may not have to tell many of the people you encounter. People toss their infected belongings and furniture out to the curb, neighborhood hoarders and collectors claim them as their own, reproducing them all around the community, and finding their way back into the household that tossed them out to the street.
The government needs to educate the pubic, generate bedbug funds for low income households, and require known public bedbug vectors such as used furniture stores, laundromats, movie theaters, schools, public transportation, and libraries to hire bug sniffing dogs to monitor and exterminate when they find something. Bedbugger.com has a page on "what you need to know" about them.
Some good will come from this pandemic. Nothing, in itself, is entirely heavenly or diabolical. Its consequences can tell you if it's good or bad in the given circumstances. You can use the truth about bedbugs to your advantage at times. I told my psychiatrist I need to postpone our winter appointment since I don't want to give them bedbugs. Now I don't need to take the six bus ride back and forth to his office in the frigid air. I'll see him in the spring. Remember when Huckleberry Finn protected Jim from slave hunters by chasing them away with a tale about them and their smallpox? What if a burglar entered your home, would he run away if you had some bed bug supply packages out in the open? You can tell unwanted door to door solicitors about your bugs. They can be a good way to strike up a conversation, but be ready to change the topic.
Due to the prevalence of bedbugs on the road, people will travel less often. Carbon emissions, global warming, and the spread of new infectious agents will not be as bad as they would be in a world without bedbugs.
The doctor says I have "post-traumatic-bedbug-stress-disorder" and I'm unnecessarily "hyper-vigilant" since I won't sit in a public seat any more. I searched "bedbugs" in TuneIn Radio. There was a soothing psychologist speaking about all the media hype causing a public bedbug panic, just so they can sell their commercials, he inferred, since we're so riveted to sensational news coverage. That's one reason why I don't own a TV. Bedbugs are, he said, only just mosquitoes on land, but expensive and time consuming, I would add. I'm not so scared any more of a few bites during a minimal infestation.
I love to examine bugs. One time a painter friend said insects were like alien beings from outer space. A doctor at the emergency room told me bedbugs do not transmit human diseases. If they did, she said, we would know about it. However, I do have borderline anemia caused by an adulthood of continuous medication. This means I have a low count of red blood cells. Bedbugs can cause severe anemia if they extract too much blood. Therefore, they are parasites, and I don't regret killing them. They are the biggest terrorists of the little world of bugs – except for the little known bird mites, which can be catastrophic, and 500 times worse, if you get them and don't treat them soon enough with a specialized bird mite pest control operator.
The appendix is preliminary, rough, ongoing, and unfinished.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Pesticide Programs Bed Bug Report (EPA 2010, p.7) said, "Monitors are an important tool for bed bug control, which pest control companies may offer as a detection option in place of a visual inspection. The only peer-reviewed study on a bed bug monitor reported on the effectiveness of the moat-style interceptor for monitoring bed bugs. This study found interceptors are more effective than visual inspection for estimating numbers and detecting infestations (Wang et al., May, 2009, a, † )." Currently, PMPs use two types of bedbug-specific monitors: moat-style interceptors (Climbup®) Insect Interceptors); and portable devices that use heat, carbon dioxide, and kairomones as lures (CDC 3000 and NightWatch TM ). Unpublished research from Dr. Wang’s lab at Rutgers University showed their homemade portable monitor was more effective than those commercially available."
(EPA 2010, p.7) said,"Many PMPs also use common sticky traps for bed bug monitoring. A survey of PMPs found that fewer than 50% use glue boards, steamers, fumigation, or freezing for bed bug treatment, and 53% routinely use sticky traps to monitor and detect bed bug activity. Pest control companies also report using double-sided sticky tape around the legs of bed frames (Potter et al., 2008a‡)."
Anderson et. al (2009, p. 99) showed that carbon dioxide and heat baited traps "with and without a chemical lure" (mimicking humans) in an "infested unoccupied apartment" captured 5898 bugs in 9 days.
Anderson et. al (2009, p. 100) Although pitfall traps, woven basket and rolled corrugated paper harborage traps, sticky traps and plants with small hooked hairs have been used for control and detection (Johnson, 1942; Hartnack, 1943; Boase, 2001; Pinto et al. , 2007), none has been reported to be particularly effective or practical.
The secondary reports of Boase (2001) and (Szyndler et. al 2013) contrasts Anderson et. al's (2009) assertion against the historical effectiveness of traps, although I was unable to locate the full text of their primary source documents in Google, Google Scholar, or my local library's database. As shown below, traps studied did not completely eradicate a bedbug population, they were able to catch a sizable population. The ability of traps to control the population may constitute an effective part of a combination of different methods to eradicate an entire population within a single human dwelling, especially in detecting an early infestation while it is more manageable."
Boase (2001) said, "The literature reveals at least two alternative approaches to bedbug monitoring, that may just have some potential. During the nineteenth century, bedbug traps were apparently widely used in the UK and in France. These consisted of flat, woven basket-work panels that were placed overnight behind the bolster in the bed, removed each morning, and the bugs shaken out and killed (Okey, 1930). One such trap is currently on display in the Cambridge Folk Museum, Cambridge. Presumably the bedbugs found harbourage in the basket-work, and bedbug faeces may have further increased its attractiveness. Another interesting approach involves trapping the bugs using the microscopic hooked hairs on the surface of leaves of certain plants, such as the bean Phaseolus vulgaris. In the Balkans, and in the former Southern Rhodesia, hooked leaves were left overnight on the floor of infested rooms, and were then swept up in the morning and burnt to destroy the bugs entangled on the leaves (Richardson, 1943)."
(Szyndler et. al 2013) said, "Historical reports describe the trapping of bed bugs in Balkan countries by leaves from bean plants strewn on the floor next to beds [4,5]. During the night, bed bugs walking on the floor would accumulate on these bean leaves, which were collected and burned the following morning to exterminate the bed bugs. The entrapment of bed bugs by the bean leaves was attributed to the action of microscopic plant hairs (trichomes) on the leaf surfaces that would entangle the legs of the bedbugs.... The decline of bed bug infestations in the 1940s and 1950s following the application of DDT and other potent pesticides legal at the time, and the distraction of the Second World War undoubtedly prevented the 1943 report ‘The action of bean leaves against the bedbug’  from gaining as much attention as it would have otherwise. While bed bugs have no evolutionary association with bean plants, similar non-glandular trichomes for a variety of plant species have been documented to trap a number of insects in more natural settings [6–13]. This physical entrapment is a source of inspiration in the development of new and sustainable methods to control the burgeoning numbers of bed bugs. (p.1)"
Wang et. al (2011) compared "three active monitors that contain attractants (such as carbon dioxide) (with) the Climbup Insect Interceptor.... In lightly infested apartments, the Interceptor...trapped similar number of bed bugs as the dry ice trap...and trapped more bed bugs than (the CDC and the NightWatch active monitors).... We conclude these monitors are effective tools in detecting early bed bug infestations and evaluating the results of bed bug control programs." The abstract to this paper did not report whether or not any uncaught bugs were deterred by the trapped bugs.
It is possible that stressed bugs caught in a trap can alert other bugs to run away, thus spreading them out further in your home or into adjacent apartments or condominium units. Reis (2010, p. 18-19) said in his master's thesis, "Bed bugs will...disperse from an aggregation if disturbed.... The bed bug possesses a scent gland between its mesothorax and metathorax from which an alarm pheromone is secreted that causes other bed bugs to become irritated. The irritation causes bedbugs to scatter and leave the aggregation." He did not cite a reference to this assertion, but an experiment by Liedtke et. al (2011) showed that alarm pheromones can repel the bugs, but only within a petri dish with a 17 cm diameter. They "separated nymphs... into individual Teflon tubes.... The insects were allowed to recover from the invasive handling for (approximately) 30 min before continuing the experimental procedures." Each tube had a mesh filter on each end. They "stimulated the emission of (bedbug nymph) alarm pheromones by...(passing) carbon dioxide...through tube(s) for ten seconds at a low flow rate (not to physically agitate the bed bugs) shortly before the start of odor collections." They collected the pheromones as odor sources to use in a subsequent next phase of the experiment. Petri dishes (17 cm in diameter) were "divided into two equal halves and the odor source was placed 0.5 cm from the edge in one of the two halves (odor section). A single bed bug was thereafter introduced into the middle of the Petri dish and its position relative to the two halves was monitored every five seconds over two minutes.... Nymph odor repelled all tested insects."
However, monitors used to capture bugs are known to reduce the bedbug population. Reis (2010, p. 21-22) said, "Bed bug populations can be reduced using a monitor that mimics a host; however, the population cannot be completely eradicated. (Anderson 2009) tested various traps that used heat, CO2, and chemical odors as bed bug attractants. Although all traps were able to catch bed bugs, traps baited with only CO2 captured significantly more bed bugs than traps baited with heat and host odors. In a separate study, Wang (2009) was able to demonstrate that traps baited with CO2 were able to capture large numbers of bed bugs, including many bed bugs that were not observed during visual inspection of infested rooms." Anderson is talking about a pitfall rather than double-sided tape as a trap.
There is some evidence that a bedbug stuck on a piece of tape will aggregate other bugs toward it rather than chasing them away. The experiment by Reis (2010), however, gave the trapped individuals some time to calm down in the trap before testing for the aggregation response of the other bugs. Therefore, it is possible that stressed bugs when first stuck on tape will emit its alarm pheromones to the others. He prepare shelters containing a live bed bug as an attractant. "One adult bed bug was starved for seven days and then restrained to a paper shelter using double sided sticky tape. Bed bugs were restrained to filter paper shelters four hours prior to (running the test) to ensure the bed bugs were acclimated (p. 46)." Compared to bugs in control chambers without attractants, "males that were starved for seven days were found more often in a chamber containing a single male bed bug,...females that were starved for seven days were found more often in the control chamber,...(and) recently fed males were found more often in a chamber containing a single female bed bug (p. 48)." This experiment supports the use of two-sided tape to trap bedbugs. However the bug trapped in the tape had been already been restrained to the tape for four hours to acclimate them to the being restrained. We can tentatively generalize from these results that a bedbug stuck for at least four hours in tape will more than likely attract than repel other nearby bugs. This is only one study, however, and may not have been replicated yet by entomologists. If they had not been acclimated, perhaps they would have released alarm pheromones before the initial four-hour window before the experimental conditions were begun. It is also possible that the trapped bugs in this test did release alarm signals, but their attractive force was stronger than their repellant signal. A related follow-up experiment can control for trapped-bug repellency by recording the movement of nearby bugs when the individual has no time to adapt once set in the trap. If the bugs do not aggregate, or if they distance themselves from the trap, then their lack of attraction can be attributed to an alarm pheromone."
Wieler (2014, retrieved March 5) reports unscientific, anecdotal evidence in support of trapping bedbugs with glue. These results show that many bugs were attracted to the bait and caught in the glue while others were already stuck. It is also possible that other untrapped bugs were repelled. "Another landlord I work with has been using Climb Up Interceptors surrounded by Trapper Max glueboards for 3 years with zero chemical applications (there have been a handful of exceptions where chemical was applied but the vast majority receive zero chemical). We heat sterilize the beds and couches and bait the bugs via the tenant into the traps. On the worst infestation we have caught over 500 bed bugs every night for 2 weeks in these traps." (For photos of these traps please refer to my blog post entitled "an attempt at chemical free bed bug control.") "The glue-boards were so full of bed bugs that they needed to be replaced every few days to make room for new bugs. As such there did not appear to be a repellency issue. This is especially true as my landlord customer, and examples in my own apartment building, suggest it is possible to remove all bed bugs from a suite in this manner.... Also I have done research work with bed bugs and glue boards. I have watched one bed bug become stuck in the glue board and another bed bug follow a few minutes later. The second bug actually used the first bug as a traction device to escape the predicament. If alarm pheromones were an issue I would have expected the second bug to avoid that spot. As such the theory that glue boards and Diatomaceous Earth repel bugs due to alarm pheromones needs to be reexamined."
David Cain, featured in this fascinating short bedbug film (undated), is the "author" at "© Bed Bugs Limited (2013)." Saner (2007) said in The Guardian that he is a "trained as a molecular biologist." He speaks confidently and intelligently throughout his public education media campaign (2013). He said, "I've been doing this longer than anyone else in the world." I admire his "green eradication" program (2013), and especially his bedbug video humor (2011)."
He has forcefully opposed the use of traps to isolate people or furniture away from the foraging bugs. He said, "Unlike all other treatment options (his) method relies upon the fact that if bedbugs are allowed to freely travel around an infected room they will relocate into an optimally positioned passive monitor from existing refugia (which his company invented and sells). It is therefore essential that the follow(ing) approaches are not used in conjunction with this approach: Bed isolation using: Barrier tapes on the bed legs, Interceptor devices on the bed legs, Vaseline or mineral oil barriers, Mattress encasements – if not correctly fitted can provide alternative refugia for bedbugs (2011). Although it may appear like a sensible idea to isolate the bed with tape of devices our field studies have shown that it is in fact the wrong way to deal with bedbugs, in short it changes their normal behavioural patterns and can cause them to see harbourages further away from their 'normal' locations. Sadly some academics and industry 'professionals' have taken the 'add on' sale approach to bedbugs and as such their work has become more about what they can sell rather than what they do to resolve your problem. We are the school of thought that the fastest way to resolve a problem is to 'treated it as naturally and normally as possible' so you can not add anything that makes the matter worse. Bedbugs are in fact very adaptable and will find ways to survive in environments where people try to hide behind an obstacle course (2013). Some monitoring systems encompass a glue or sticky element, but these are best avoided as they can induce the release of alarm pheromones from any immobilised bedbug which encourages others to scatter and disperse. (2013)." He advised his clients to "remove any tapes and isolation devices from your beds and seating areas (2013)."
Nobugsonme "started and runs" bedbugger.com, "but is not an expert." He said, "Most pest control operators disagree with Cain's objection to pitfall traps. Nobugsonme said, "Just to throw this out there: other PCOs besides David (dare I say most) do recommend pitfall traps like the ClimbUps. Other PCOs here are among them but they don't tend to contradict one another here very much even when they don't agree. I respect David's knowledge and methods but no one using ClimbUps should worry they're doing something 'wrong'. Besides the concern David has that they may spread bed bugs around the home-- which I don't think I have heard other PCOs express concern about-- a few consumers have complained about ClimbUps cracking on carpeted floors. Putting something hard and flat under them may prevent this. Rather than thinking of this or that method as good or bad, think of PCOs having different methods. They're not necessarily mix and match. David's methods work for him, apparently very well. But other PCOs who recommend ClimbUps or other monitoring methods can also use these to good effect and get rid of bed bugs (2012)."
He confidently replied (2012), "I am but a lone voice in the dark."
(Potter 2008) To conclude this appendix, the results of Liedtke et.al (2011) support Mr. Cain's premise of the existence of a dispersing alert. They invasively placed them inside a tube and gently blew carbon dioxide gas over them. They emitted alarm pheromone which they collected. They applied a spot of scent to the inside a small petri dish. Bugs in the dish moved away from the spot. However, Reis (2010) showed that a bug which may have been mildly stressed while stuck on tape was able to attract free roaming bugs toward it.
Reis (2010) produced the first independent variable, the attractant, the minimally stressed bug on tape, and Liedtke et. al (2011) produced a second independent variable, the alarm repellant of a bug put in a tube, the pheromone. The level of blood meal deprivation as opposed to its satiation is another independent variable as measured by amount of time after previously undisturbed feeding. The dependent variable is the average accumulated distance traveled from one location to another during a set length of time. Another dependent variable can be its speed of movement. If the phenomenons are real, then changes in the independent variables cause changes to the dependent variable. Distance traveled is the dependent variable because you want to be able to control it, because wandering the problem behavior we're concerned about here. We don't want bugs hiding all over the house or spreading out into an adjacent human residence. in the , the scientist can. Is the attraction of an unfed bug to human blood more powerful than an alarm pheromone of a bug stuck on a slipper? Will a satiated bug disperse when another is trapped or will it nest in its harborage undisturbed until it's hungry again? Will a sexually aroused, blood satiated male move toward an alarmed female that's stuck on a slipper? Does a bug stuck on a slipper on the foot of a human walking around an apartment disperse them more than a bug stuck on a stationary piece of double-side tape on a chair where he's sitting that's been isolated with two-sided tape on all four of its legs?
Reis can determine if an invasively handled bug set into a piece of tape is collect the pheromone of a bug as soon as it's stuck on a piece of tape, place the pheromone in the arena, and see if it repels unfed bugs when the bug is not present. Then he could measure the effect of repellant upon distance of unfed bugs. Then he could feed them and measure the effect of repellent upon hungry bugs. He could measure the movement of bugs, satiated and deprived, while a stressed female is initially stuck on tape to see which is stronger, alarm repellant or a mate on a piece of tape. He could also control for sexual arousal as an independent variable and see if males who had recently mated are more likely to disperse. than pheromone is stronger than the difference between as a function of emitted by the way Liedtke et al. did. the simultaneous operation of both . By adding another phase, he can determine whether or not there's a difference in strength between two opposing, simultaneous variables, the repellant and the attractant. A restrained, acclimated, thus minimally alarmed, individual does not repel, it attracts. By withholding the delay between initial restraint and the beginning of the introduction of free-roaming peers, it would then have no time to adapt to tape restraint. In the beginning of restraint, immediately after handling, it would probably be more stressed and more likely to release alarm pheromone, perhaps in a stronger concentration. If they do not aggregate toward the individuals, or if they disperse, then the evidence would support Cain's objection to isolation. If they all clustered near the bug on the trap, then we could argue in favor of double-sided tape isolation techniques. If some clustered near the individuals and others dispersed, I would argue in favor of Mr. Cain, because my anxiety would escalate if my bugs invaded the adjacent apartments. I would rather they eat me until I eradicated them all.
My strategy now is to trap a potential intruder to to my bug free home. If it goes for me in the bed or at the workspace, it'll hopefully get trapped in a ClimbUp or a slipper. There won't be any other bugs to chase it away. So I'll be wearing the slippers in prevention.
(Will be added later, but almost all citations above are linked to their internet full text documents.)
Richardson, H. H. (1943) The Action of Bean Leaves against the Bedbug. In: Unbidden House Guests. Hartnack, H. (Ed.), Hartnack Publishing Company, Tacoma, Washington, USA. pp. 60–62 (Referenced in Boase, 2001, p. 162.)